Right here we’re going to see the idea behind similarity of trademark and its associated issues. Part 11(1) of the 1999 Act enacts the essential precept of trademark regulation that no trademark shall be registered whether it is an identical or just like an earlier registered trademark for comparable items or companies. The necessities beneath part 11(1) is a corollary to the unique proper prolonged to the registered logos and to guard the rights of the merchants in relation to the products or companies marketed by them beneath these logos. Probability of confusion: The probability of confusion or dilution leading to refusal of registration beneath part 11 needs to be primarily based upon: Id of the later trademark with an earlier trademark and similarity of companies or items which is roofed by the trademark. Similarity of later trademark with earlier logos and the id or similarity which is roofed by the trademark. Similarity or affiliation with earlier trademark: In part 11(1) the next trademark can be refused registration, whether it is an identical or just like an earlier trademark, and the products or companies lined by subsequent mark are an identical or just like the products or companies lined by the sooner mark, and there’s probability of confusion on the a part of public if subsequent mark is allowed, or if the general public shall affiliate the next mark with the sooner mark, it’s ample probability of confusion to be lined beneath the prohibition enacted in part 11(1). Courts are growing the jurisprudence and giving a befitting which means to the brand new provisions. The judgement and dialogue beneath the headings, dilution and commerce costume could also be thought of depending on the phrase/expression affiliation used on this provision. An identical: If the products or companies are an identical, there doesn’t look like any have to show confusion or affiliation with earlier trademark. Cognizance beneath part 11(1) needs to be taken by the registrar in ex officio examination. Probability: Part 11(1)(a) and (b) change into operative provided that one of many two outcomes are achieved Probability of confusion on the affiliation with earlier trademark. a part of the general public. Confusion could come up, if there’s a probability on the a part of public to affiliate the trademark sought to be registered with an earlier mark. The second side is enacted to protest in opposition to dilution of logos. Associating the later mark with earlier mark or dilution: If the general public shall affiliate or are more likely to affiliate the next mark with the sooner mark, it’s a new floor for opposition and is known as doctrine of dilution. Below this doctrine there’s a presumption that the related clients begin associating the trademark with a brand new and completely different supply.